Instructions for Authors

The Journal of Biosystems Engineering (JBE), an international open access journal published quarterly by the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery (KSAM), reports on advanced scientific aspects of engineering in agricultural, food, and biological systems.


Submission of Manuscripts

Manuscripts should be submitted to the on-line submission system at, following all screen prompts. Technical difficulties can be resolved by contacting to: The Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery, In: Department of Agricultural Engineering, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA, 310 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Wansan-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54875, Republic of Korea (Phone: +82-63-224-2392, Fax: +82-303-3440-2392, Email:

Manuscripts are to be submitted in their final form and must be written in English, and authors are urged to aim for clarity, brevity, and accuracy of information and language. Authors whose first language is not English should have their manuscripts checked for linguistic accuracy by a fluent English speaker. Using the JBE template available at would be helpful for meeting the journal’s formatting requirements. A properly completed “Copyright Transfer Agreement” should also be supplied before the manuscript is published. The corresponding author is asked to sign it on behalf of all authors.


Editorial and Review Policy

Editorial policy

Manuscripts submitted for publication should contain no materials that violate any copyright. Submission of a manuscript to JBE involves the tacit assurance that no similar paper has been or will be submitted for publication in other journals. Manuscripts that have been published in a conference or meeting proceedings without peer review may be submitted to JBE. It is the responsibility of the authors, not the KSAM, to determine whether disclosure of their material requires the prior consent of other parties and to obtain that consent. Statements and opinions given in work published by JBE are the expressions of the authors. Responsibility for the contents of published papers rests upon the authors, not the KSAM.


Publication type

JBE accepts the following types of manuscripts: original research articles, review articles, and technical notes. An original research article represents an original, important contribution to agricultural, food, and biological systems engineering. The manuscript should clearly state the scope and purpose of the research work. The information presented must be objective and well organized, and the conclusions should be adequately supported. Review articles should be a critical evaluation of the existing state of knowledge on a particular aspect of agricultural, food, and biological systems engineering. Simple literature surveys will not be accepted for publication. Technical notes should be brief descriptions which covers completed work of the development of devices, equipment, techniques, or applications that offer definite advantages in research or practice over those already available.

Peer-review process

All manuscripts are subject to peer review for the validity of the experimental design and results, significance, and appropriateness for JBE.
When manuscripts are submitted successfully to the journal online system(, they are initially subjected to a pre-screening step by the Editor-in-Chief. Manuscripts that are poorly written or fail to meet the required format will be rejected in the pre-screening step without further review. Manuscripts that pass this step will be reviewed by at least two anonymous reviewers selected by the Editor-in-Chief or editors designated by the Editor-in- chief. The corresponding author is notified as soon as possible regarding the decision to accept, reject, or request revision of a manuscript. The manuscripts evaluated as “accept” or “request minor revision” by all of the reviewers are considered to be accepted for publication, although some revisions may be required to address the concerns of the reviewers and Editor-in-Chief. In cases where a manuscript is evaluated as “make major revisions (resubmission after revision)” or “reject” by at least one of the reviewers, the Editor-in-Chief will analyze the reviewers’ comments thoroughly and make a decision on acceptance or rejection. If there are major flaws in the results of the research or the methodological design, the Editor-in-Chief may ask the author to clarify and resubmit or may reject the manuscript. If a manuscript is classified as “accept with revisions,” the author is expected to respond within 3 months, addressing all the comments raised by the reviewers, making appropriate corrections or stating why the comments are unreasonable (download, fill-out and submit the template of ‘Answers to reviewers’ from along with revised manuscript). The responsible editor or a reviewer will consider the revisions, and recommend that the Editor-in-Chief either accept the manuscript for publication or reject it. The author will be informed by the Editor-in-Chief of the final decision on the publication of the manuscript. When the final revised manuscript meets all JBE content and format requirements and has been accepted for publication without additional revisions, it is scheduled for publication in the next available issue.


Page proofs

The page proof stage is not a time for extensive corrections, additions, or deletions. It is advised that editing be limited to the correction of typographical errors, incorrect data, and grammatical errors, and for updating information on references that had been in press. The corrections to page proofs should be sent immediately by e-mail or a fast mail service, preferably within 2business days.


Page charges

JBE has no page charges. The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. Paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication.


Ethical Considerations

Research ethics

If the work involves experimentation on living animals, the authors must provide evidence that it was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines. In the case of work involving human beings, the procedures should be in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the author’s institution and with the 2000 revision of the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. For issues on research and publication ethics not stated in this guide, the “Responsible authorship quick guide(” or ”International Standards for Authors (” should be consulted and followed.



Manuscript authorship should be restricted to those who meet any of the following conditions: 1) substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study; 2) acquisition, interpretation, and analysis of data; 3) drafting the article or revising it critically for the important intellectual content. In addition, all listed authors must approve the final version of the manuscript to be published.


Conflict of interest

All authors are asked to inform the Editor-in-Chief of the any actual or potential conflict of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of the data. Such conflicts may include but are not limited to financial support or personal relationships with other people or organizations, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems.


Copyright policy

All copyright and other intellectual property rights related to the content of the journal are licensed to KSAM. Hence, a completed “Copyright Transfer Agreement” form should accompany any original material when it is first submitted to JBE. Once a manuscript is accepted, KSAM asserts its copyright and applies it to an open access policy. Articles may be reproduced and distributed only for non-commercial purposes, as detailed in the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: In other words, through the Creative Commons license, KSAM allows others to reproduce and distribute the works it publishes, as long as the authors are properly attributed and the content is not plagiarized, misrepresented, or used for commercial purposes. Duplicate publications should not be represented as original publications; rather, JBE should be cited as the original site of publication. Apart from these misuses, anyone is free to read, download, copy, share, store, print, search, link, and crawl the fulltext of the work.


Organization of the Manuscript

The manuscript should be organized in the following sequence.

Title and Authorship
Abstract and Keywords
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Conflict of Interest
Acknowledgements (optional)
Appendix or Nomenclature (optional)

Authors may download the ‘JBE Manuscript Template’ in MS-word for more details from - Author’s guide.


1. Title and Authorship

The title should communicate key information about the article’s content. The authors’ information should be listed in the manuscript submission system ( but should not be included anywhere in this manuscript. 

Everyone who made a significant contribution to the conception, design or implementation of the work should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author has the responsibility to include all (and only) co-authors. The corresponding author also signs a copyright license on behalf of all the authors.
If there are more than 10 co-authors on the manuscript, the corresponding author should provide a statement to specify the contribution of each co-author to the editor and/or cover letter. 
It is possible to have two corresponding authors. Please identify co-corresponding authors on the manuscript submission system as well as in your comments to the editor and/or cover letter. 


2. Abstract and Keywords

The abstract should summarize the most important points of the manuscript. The abstract should be described in 4 sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions within a single paragraph. Purpose: the purpose of the research. Methods: a brief description of the experimental methods. Results: summary of the significant results. Conclusions: major conclusions or implications of the findings for research or practice. The method and results should be presented as specifically as possible within the constraints of the word limit. The abstract must be no more than 300 words
Place five or fewer keywords or key phrases alphabetically, separated by commas. List both specific and general terms that will aid in searches.


3. Introduction

The introduction should be used to review the published literature and issues related to the topic. The required method for giving references in the text is the last name-publication year system as in Kim (1966) or (Kim, 1974), depending on whether the author name is mentioned in the sentence or not. For two authors, the format of Kim and Smith (1976) or (Kim and Smith, 1976), and for three or more authors, Kim et al. (1966) or (Kim et al., 1966) should be used. When more than two references are cited for the same content, they should be arranged chronologically from oldest to the most recent as (Kim et al., 1966; Kim 1974; Lee and Kim 2000).
A thorough introduction will help the reader recognize how the research contributes to the current knowledge in the subject area. Thus, the introduction should include a literature review, a description of the problem addressed by the study or the gap in current research findings, and the purpose of the study.
Nomenclature and abbreviations
Nomenclature and abbreviations should be consistent throughout the manuscript. When a symbol used, it must be defined immediately after the first use in the text or after an equation. If more than 10 symbols or nomenclatures frequently used, “List of Symbols” or “List of Nomenclature” can be used at the end of the manuscript after the Reference.


4. Materials and Methods

Information about materials and methods should be provided in enough detail to allow a competent researcher to repeat the experiments and verify the results. In the materials section, material preparation, specification of the materials, and equipment used in the experiments should be described. The source company of materials, equipment, and software should be stated parenthetically along with the model name, the city, the state or province, and country of the company. The experimental procedure and the data analysis methods should also be stated in this section.


5. Results and Discussion

A solution to the problem stated in the introduction should be provided in the results and discussion section. Tables and figures are commonly used to visually show the results. Rather than restating the entire content of tables and figures, only the critical data can be restated in the text to emphasize evidence on which the conclusions are based. The data should also be interpreted in this section. Because the results and discussion are combined,the author may choose to address each finding and then discuss it before moving on to the next point, or present the results followed by the discussion. The discussion should include a comparison with previous findings by identifying how and why there are differences and where there is agreement. Any limitations of the study should be addressed.


6. Conclusions

The main findings of the research should be summarized in the conclusions section. This section should not contain extensive repetition of the Results and Discussion section or reiteration of the Introduction section.


7. Conflict of Interest

The author(s) of the manuscript should mention any potential conflicts of interest related to the paper. If there are none, the following statement may be used: “The authors have no conflicting financial or other interests.”.


8. Acknowledgments

The sources of financial or material support can be listed in the acknowledgements section. Also, any individuals whose contributions were significant but not deserving of authorship should be described.


9. References

There must be a text citation for each reference and vice versa. The references cited in the text should be listed in the reference section in alphabetical order of the last name of the first author. The references published by the same author in the same year are indicated by placing a, b, and so on, next to the publication year (e.g. 1999a, 1999b, etc.). 
The most common types of references are as follows: 
Journal ArticleJournal article are of the form “Authors. Year. Title with only the first word capitalized. Journal Title with major words capitalized followed immediately by volume number (issue number): first page number-last page number. (shift+enter) DOI (digital object idientifier)”
DOI should be placed, if available. Do not use period mark after doi.

Kim, D. -G., S. -W. Seo, B. K. Cho, S. Lohumi, S. J. Hong and W. -H. Lee. 2018. Review of current approaches for implementing
metabolic reconstruction. Journal of Biosystems Engineering 43(1): 45-58.


Journal article not in English but has English abstract
Kim, Y. J., S. O. Chung, S. J. Park and C. H. Choi. 2011. Analysis of the power requirements of agricultural tractors by major field operation. Journal of Biosystems Engineering 36(2): 79-88 (In Korean, with English abstract). 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.2.79


Book references are of the form “Authors. Year. Book Title with major word capitalized in italic, 2nd ed. (if there is an edition number), City, Province (or state), country: name of publisher.”

Heldman, D. R. and R. P. Singh. 1981. Food Process Engineering, 2nd ed. Westport, CT, USA: AVI Publishing Company Inc.


Part of a Book
References of part in a book are of the form “Authors. Year. Chapter title with only the first word capitalized. In: Book Title with major word capitalized in italic, eds. Editor’s name, first page of chapter-last page of chapter. City, Province (or state), country: name of publisher.”

Sudduth, K.A., J.W. Hummel and S.J. Birrell. 1997. Sensors for site-specific management. In: The State of Site-specific Management for Agriculture, eds. F. J. Pierce and E. J. Sadler, 183-210. Madison, WI, USA: ASA-CSSA-SSSA.


Bulletin, Report, or similar publication
The form is “Authors. Year. Bulletin title with only the first word capitalized. The bulletin or report number. City, Province (or state), Country: Agency.”

Centers for Disease Controal and Prevention. 2000. Infection vectors for E. coli and intervention strategies. CDC Reference No. 9923. Atlanta, GA. USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Jesperson, D. 1995. United States fruit and vegetable harvest projections: 1996. USDA-1007. Washington, D.C.: GPO.


Conference proceedings 
If there is a sponsoring organization that has an address, the form is “Authors. Year. Paper title with only the first word capitalized. In: Title of the Proceedings in italic, identifying publication number, first page of the paper-last page of the paper. City of sponsoring organization, Province, Country: Sponsoring Organization.” 
If there isn't a sponsor or if the sponsor doesn't have an address, the form is "Authors. Year. Paper title with only the first word capitalized. In: Title of the Proceedings in italic, identifying publication number, first page of the paper-last page of the paper. City, Province, Country where the conference was held. Month days.”

Lund, E.D., K.L. Collings, P.E. Drummond, C.D. Christy and V.I. Adamchuck. 2004. Managing pH variability with on-the-go pH mapping. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Precision Agriculture, pp. 120-132, Madison, WI, USA: ASA-CSSA-SSSA.
Anthony, W. S. 1998. Performance characteristics of cotton ginning machinery. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Precision Agriculture, Paper No. 981010. St. Joseph, MI, USA: March 1998.


The form is “Software name. Year. Manual of the software. Version of the software. City, Province (or state), Country: Company name.”

SAS. 1990. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Ver. 6a. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute, Inc.
SPSS. 2000. SigmaPlot for Windows. Ver. 3.2. Chicago, IL, USA: SPSS, Inc.


The form is “Abbreviation of the standard organization name. Year. Standard code: Title of the standard. City, Province (or state), Country: Full name of the organization that made the standard.”
“The standard code, year” is the form to use in the text, for example ISO-5131 (2015) or (KS B ISO 3471, 2014).

ISO. 2015. ISO-5131: Acoustics – Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry – Measurement of noise at the operator’s position – Survey method. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
KS. 2014. KS B ISO 3471: Earth-moving machinery – Roll-over protective structures – Laboratory test and performance requirements. Seoul, Rep. Korea: Korean Standard Association.


Dissertation or Thesis 
The form is “Author. Year. Thesis title with only the first word capitalized. Unpublished MS or Ph.D. thesis. City, Province (or state), Country: University Department, University.”

Campbell, M. D. 1991. The lower limit of soil water potential for potato growth. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Pullman, WA: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Washington State University.
Lawrence, D. J. 1992. Effect of tillage and crop rotation on soil nitrate and moisture. Unpublished MS thesis. Ames, Iowa: Department of Soil Science, Iowa State University.


Online Source
Referencing online source is discouraged because they can be removed anytime. However, if you do choose to reference an online source, use the following form. “Authors. Year. Title of the online source. Title of the site. Available at: URL (Date of accessed).” Do not use period after a URL. Authors should make a hard copy of the online source material to keep the files so that readers can contact you for the information if the online source is no longer accessible.

USDA. 1999. Wheat Production in the Upper Plains: 1998-1999. National Agricultural Statistics Database. Washington, D.C.: USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service. Available at: (2018.1.1.).
NSC. 2001. Injury Facts Online. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council. Available at: (2018.1.1.).


The form is “Author. Year. Title of the patent with only the first word capitalized. Patent number (in Korean if the material is not in English).”

Moulton, R. K. 1992. Method for on-site cleaning of contaminant filters in livestock housing facilities. U.S. Patent No. 32455986.
Richarde, J. 1983. Process for protecting a fluid product and installations for the realization of that process. French Patent No. 2513087 (in French).


10. Appendix or Nomenclature

This optional section can include lists of nomenclature or abbreviations, data, or tables that are too long to include in the body of the article.


Format and Style of Manuscript

Authors may download the ‘JBE Manuscript Template’ in MS-word for more details from - Author’s guide.


1. Generals
The manuscript should be prepared in English using MS-word with 12 point Time New Roman font, double-spaced, line numbers on the left margin, and page number.  

First-Level Heading 
Any first level headings should be in bold 14-point Times New Roman font with their first letter of each word capitalized (i.e. Introduction, Materials and Methods).


Second-level heading 
Any second level headings should be in bold 12-point Times New Roman font. Only the first word is capitalized. 


Third-Level Heading 
Any third level headings should be in italic 12-point Times New Roman font. Only the first word is capitalized.

All units of measurement should be expressed in SI (metric) units. A space should be left between the measurement and unit (e.g., 25 mm) but no space is needed for temperature degrees (e.g., 25°C) and percentages (e.g., 35%).


2. Tables
Tables should be used for reporting extensive numerical data in an organized manner. They should be self-explanatory. The data presented in the tables should neither be duplicated in figures nor discussed exhaustively in the text, but instead, only key findings should be highlighted and discussed. Each table should be specifically referenced and explained in the text. Tables should be placed within the main text. Table titles should be placed above each table. The title should be brief, but must sufficiently explain the data included. Tables should be consecutively numbered and referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc. The first letter of the table title should be capitalized and a period should not be placed at the end of the title. Tables are numbered in order of citation in the text. Lowercase letters in superscripts a), b), c) ... should be used for special remarks.


3. Figures
Figures, including graphs or charts, should be designed to improve the general presentation of technical information and should be of publishable quality. The type of charts or graphs should be chosen based on the key message the author wishes to deliver. Figures are generally used to show trends, whereas tables are used when the numerical values of the data are important. 


1) About figure captions
Brief but complete information and explanation of the figures should be provided in the figure caption. Do not include the caption as part of the figure graphics. The figure caption should be placed at below of each figure that explains. Figures should be numbered consecutively in the text and referred to as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. The word “Figure” should be abbreviated when enclosed in parentheses (e.g., Fig. 1). Color figures will display in color in the pdf version but will be printed in grayscale. Please test your color figures to be sure they are also legible in grayscale. 


2) Figure axes
When drawing graphs, note the following:

1. Use Arial bold font for axes and Arial font in the figure and/or graphics.
2. The color of axes should be black.
3. Draw the axes only; do not "box in" the graph unless the upper and/or right-hand side also being axed.
4. Capitalize only the first character of the axis label.
5. Units should be in parentheses on each axis.


3) Axes line weights
Axes line, when in the published form, should be approximately 0.3 mm in width. Therefore, if your actual drawing is to fit into a single column (approximately 90 mm width), the axes line width used should be approximately 2 pt in point widths (0.5 mm).


4) Lines
All lines should be black color. Where it is necessary to distinguish between a number of lines on a figure, use different styles of black lines (solid, short dashes, long dashes, mixed, etc). Do not use shades of gray for lines.


4. Equations

For new equations, all assumptions and initial boundary conditions should be stated, and a sufficient derivation should be provided for the reader to understand its development. Only those mathematical steps required for comprehension should be shown. All important equations should be displayed on separate lines with consecutive numbers enclosed in parentheses (1) and positioned at the right margin to facilitate their reference within the manuscript.